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The insertion of larger orbital balls placed more posteriorly reduced the number of subsequent procedures.
Dr. Collin presented the A.D. Ruedemann Lecture at a combined meeting of the American Society of Ocularists and the American Academy of Ophthalmology/Society of European Ophthalmologists.
Seeking to improve techniques for correction of PESS, Dr. Collin's colleagues at Moorfields began to study the backward tilt of the artificial eye and related issues such as lid retraction, the shallow lower fornix, and the pathophysiology of PESS.
In the early 1990s, based on the findings from various studies, Dr. Collin and his colleagues changed their practice and subsequently compared the outcomes of a series of PESS cases from what they termed the early years (1984 to 1993) versus the late years (1994 to 2003).