How does diabetic retinopathy influence cataract surgery?

Study compares preoperative risk factors, co-pathology in patients

Editor’s note: Ophthalmology Times is pleased to recognize John R. Chancellor, MD, MS, resident, Jones Eye Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, as the second-place honoree of the second Ophthalmology Times Research Scholar Honoree Program. Dr. Chancellor’s abstract is featured here. The Ophthalmology Times Research Scholar Honoree Program is dedicated to the education of retina fellows and residents by providing a unique opportunity for fellows/residents to share notable research and challenging cases with their peers and mentors. The program is supported by unrestricted grants from Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc. Look for more case study honorees in upcoming issues of Ophthalmology Times.

Purpose

At some point, every ophthalmologist is going to have a diabetic patient walk into the office who is going to have a visually significant cataract. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of vision loss among patients with diabetes and a primary cause of blindness among working-age adults.

As a result, the purpose of the study was to evaluate how diabetic retinopathy influences cataract surgery. The primary aims included studying preoperative risk factors, intraoperative complications, and postoperative outcomes.

Methods

The study examined a retrospective clinical database study of 217,107 eyes that underwent cataract surgery at eight UK National Health Service hospitals between 2000-2015. Of those eyes included in the database study, 138,100 were not diabetic; 41,059 were diabetic; and for the remaining 37,948, the diabetic status was not recorded.

Our methods for the evaluation of risk factors compared prevalence of preoperative risk factors and co-pathology between diabetic patients and non-diabetic patients. In the evaluation of complications, we compared incidences of intraoperative complications between diabetic patients and non-diabetic patients during cataract surgery.

Lastly, we compared postoperative outcomes between diabetic patients and non-diabetic patients after cataract surgery. Our methodology included strict inclusion criteria, including no copathology, except amblyopia; no simultaneous surgical procedures, except intraocular injection; and clear ETDRS grading of retinopathy was required.

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In examining preoperative risk factors, we found that epiretinal membranes (ERM), small pupil, and brunescent/ white cataract are more common in diabetics. Our review of intraoperative complications found that posterior capsular rupture, dropped nuclear fragment, corneal edema, and overall complication rates were higher among diabetic patients.

In our examination of postoperative outcomes, we found that visual acuity, good vision (≤20/40), and pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (CME) were negatively associated with diabetes and degree of diabetic retinopathy.

The effect of preoperative diabetic macular edema (DME) on visual acuity and good vision was similar to the effect of having moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). As we evaluated outcomes, we looked at the difference in preoperative and postoperative visual acuity between the diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

Using logistic regression analysis for pre- and postop (four to 12 weeks) BCVA > logMAR 0.3 with 95% CI, we examined the chance of having poor vision postoperatively. We examined the chance of having pseudophakic cystoid macular edema postoperatively, using logistic regression analysis for postop CME with 95% CI. We also wanted to determine if we could predict postoperative vision based on preoperative vision and diabetic status.

We utilized a linear regression model for age, preop DME, diabetic status, preop visual acuity, and postop visual acuity at four to 12 weeks with 95% CI. There also are some limitations that we acknowledge, including retrospective design, missing short-term follow up data, and missing details of grading of cataract type/density.

We found that diabetics are seeing worse, they are having poor vision and are developing more macular edema after surgery. The worse their retinopathy, the worse their outcome.

Conclusion

This study provides data to assist in the planning of cataract surgery and providing informed consent in diabetic patients. It would be reasonable to recommend performing cataract extraction on diabetic patients early, before the development of significant retinopathy or vision decline.

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Disclosures:

John R. Chancellor, MD, MS
E: JRChancellor@uams.edu
Dr. Chancellor has no financial interests or relationships to disclose. None of the listed participants on his project have any financial interests or relationships to disclose.