Over the past decades, clinicians have learned to classify eye injuries as closed or open globe injuries.
"No two eye injuries are alike," said Dr. Sternberg, professor and chairman, Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN. "Much of the difficulty in identifying and managing injuries was that previously eye injuries were not classified."
Open injuries can be classified further as limited to the anterior segment with or without lens damage or involving the posterior segment with extensive corneal injury, with extensive choroidal hemorrhages, with infection, with an intraocular foreign body, and with no light perception.
A number of different systems of classification of types of injuries have been developed, according to Dr. Sternberg, and are helpful for determining the type of injury and the prognosis. Although the classification systems often emphasize anatomic aspects of the injury, the relevant prognostic factors reflect the functional status of the eye: the presenting visual acuity and the presence or absence of a relative afferent pupillary defect.