During the past two decades, an incredible number of imaging technologies have been developed for eye diseases, both for diagnosis and follow-up. Most of these developments aim to improve the investigation of retinal diseases with fluorescein or indocyanine angiography, scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and, more recently, the revolutionary optical coherence tomography (OCT).
There have been similar developments regarding the cornea and ocular surface, although use of these innovations remains more restricted. As the cornea is easily and directly accessible to biomicroscopy, several techniques were developed in the 1990s but with poor resolution at that time and limited uses in routine practice.
A breakthrough came in the early 2000s with the major improvement of the in vivo confocal microscopy technique provided by the Rostock Cornea Module, a customised objective added to the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph, a descendant of SLO and an outstanding tool for optic disk examination, its use more circumscribed than OCT but still usable in practice.