Endophthalmitis may be a rare occurrence, but it can be a devastating one. Acute cases are known to be caused by gram-positive bacteria and usually present within 6 weeks post-surgery. Chronic cases can occur beyond the 6-week timetable, but are often related to a previous surgery and the culprit is often a progressive infection (e.g., fungus).
Acute cases should be treated as an emergency (and may result in treatment with vitrectomy if presenting vision is poor enough). If vision has not yet been adversely impacted, treatment may only require antibiotics or antifungal agents.
Preventing endophthalmitis, therefore, has often been the goal for surgeons, and patients are typically prescribed an antibiotic prophylaxis regimen prior to undergoing surgery.
But most antibiotic prophylaxis regimens are comprised of multiple doses, meaning “patient compliance is always a concern, especially for older patients who may have difficulty in instilling the drops,” said Eric Romanowski, MS (The Charles T. Campbell Ophthalmic Microbiology Laboratory, University of Pittsburgh).
Eric Romanowski, MS
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This article was adapted from Romanowski’s AAO 2017 presentation. He has no financial disclosures.